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Equine Piroplasmosis status - Equigerminal
Equine Piroplasmosis status - Equigerminal
Equine Piroplasmosis status - Equigerminal
Equine Piroplasmosis status - Equigerminal

Equine Piroplasmosis status

Fornecedor
Equigerminal
Preço normal
€99.00
Preço de saldo
€99.00
Preço unitário
por 
Imposto incluído.

Pathogen test 

  • 2 c-ELISA tests to detect antibodies to Babesia caballi and Theileria equi, the 2 agents responsible for Equine Piroplasmosis. c-ELISA required for official  trading/ import / export of horses.
     +
  • 2 qPCR tests to detect the genome of  Babesia caballi and Theileria equi.
 For more information check the Diagnosis of Piroplasmosis page. 

 

ISO/IEC 17025 accredited assay

Sample

  • 5 mL of blood / serum / plasma - collect blood in a dry or EDTA tube, plus 
  • 5mL of blood - collect blood in K3 EDTA tube

Turnaround time

Standard processing - Results in 2-5 working days after sample arrival at the laboratory. Clients organise and support the costs of sending the samples to the laboratory.

PREMIUM processing - Results in 5 hours after sample arrival. Includes free express delivery** . The laboratory organises Express shipping with pick-up of the package at the client's address and delivery at the laboratory.

** PREMIUM SERVICES INCLUDE AN EXPRESS SHIPPING DELIVERY FOR EUROPEAN COUNTRIES FROM NON REMOTE REGIONS.

Check here to know if you are in a remote European region.

For remote regions EXTRA fees are applied.

What is Piroplasmosis?

  • Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is a tick-borne disease of horses caused by the intraerytrocytic protozoan parasites Babesia caballi and Theileria equi of the Order Piroplasmida.
  • This agent is transmitted through a tick vector.
  • Infected animals may remain carriers of these blood parasites for long periods and act as sources of infection for other ticks.
  • The parasites occur in southern Europe, Asia, countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States, Africa, Cuba, South and Central America, and certain parts of the southern United States of America.

Clinical signs

  • Incubation period of equine piroplasmosis associated with T. equi 12 to 19 days and approximately 10 to 30 days when caused by B. caballi.
  • The clinical signs of equine piroplasmosis are often nonspecific, and the disease can easily be confused with other similar haemolytic conditions presenting fever, anemia and jaundice.
  • T. equi tends to cause more severe disease than B. caballi.
  • Piroplasmosis can occur in per-acute, acute, subacute and chronic forms.

 

  • Per-acute form - rare form of disease with only clinical observation being moribund or dead animals
  • Acute form - most common form of disease cases, characterised by fever that usually exceeds 40°C, reduced appetite and malaise, elevated respiratory and pulse rates, congestion of mucous membranes. Production of a dark red urine; faecal balls that are smaller and drier than normal. Affected animals may appear unthrifty; anaemic and/or icteric
  • Subacute form - similar to acute form but accompanied by weight loss in affected animals and intermittent fever. Mucous membranes vary from pale pink to pink, or pale yellow to bright yellow; petechiae and/or ecchymoses may also be visible on the mucous membranes. Normal bowel movements may be slightly depressed and the animals may show signs of mild colic.
  • Chronic form - chronic cases usually present nonspecific clinical signs such as mild inappetence, poor performance and a drop in body mass. Documented case fatality rates vary from 10–50%. Most animals in endemic areas survive infection.

Transmission

  • Babesia caballi sporozoites invade red blood cells (RBCs) and transform into trophozoites which grow and divide into two round, oval or pear-shaped merozoites which, in turn, are capable of infecting new RBCs and the division process is then repeated. 
  • B. caballi can be found in various organs of tick vectors and do transmit transovarially from egg to larva
  • Theileria equi sporozoites inoculated into horses via a tick bite invade the lymphocytes and these intralymphocytic forms undergo development and eventually form Theileria-like schizonts; merozoites released from these schizonts invade red blood cells (RBCs) and transform into trophozoites which grow and divide into pear-shaped tetrad (‘Maltese cross’) merozoites.
  • T. equi develop in salivary glands of tick vector and not found in other tick organs; not transmitted transovarially from egg to larva. Transmission is also possible through mechanical vectors contaminated by infected blood (e.g. contaminated needles).

Prevention

  • Sanitary prophylaxis EP is most commonly introduced into an area by means of carrier animals or infected ticks; thus, movement of equids requires testing; reducing exposure of equids to ticks; repellents, acaricides and regular inspection; animals and premises; control and eradication of the tick vector; including removal of nearby vegetation that could harbour ticks; any detected EP-positive animals should be quarantined from surrounding horses and vectors; special care in possible mechanical infection of horses with contaminated blood.
  • Medical prophylaxis - no biological products are available currently; antiprotozoal agents only temporarily clear T. equi from carriers