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Salmonellosis, qPCR

Salmonellosis, qPCR

Vendor
Equigerminal
Regular price
€45.00
Sale price
€45.00
Unit price
per 

Pathogen test 

  • The PCR test detects the genome (DNA) of the Salmonella serovar abortus-equi, the bacteria responsible for Salmonellosis and abortion in equines.

Sample

  • 1 genital swabs - sterile swab 
     and/or
  • 20 gr - placental or foetal tissues - sterile flask

     and/or

    • 5 mL - blood - K3 EDTA tube

    Turnaround time

    • 2 to 5 working days

     

    What is Salmonellosis?

    Contagious and zoonotic bacterial infection caused by Salmonella spp, of which there are >2500 serotypes.

    Clinical signs

     

    • Abortion with infection by Salmonella serovar abortus-equi.

     

    Clinically normal horses can transiently shed Salmonella, with shedding more common during:

    • Concurrent illness: antibacterial usage, physiological disturbance
    • Stress: transportation, social, nutritional
    • Gastrointestinal disturbance: motility (especially colic), feed change 
    • Diarrhoea (soft feces to projectile, watery diarrhoea) is most common, however, horses may have normal feces
    • Fever (patient may have normal temperature, especially if treated with NSAIDs)
    • Lethargy
    • Anorexia
    • Colic
    • Localised infection (e.g. joint or bone infection)
    • Sepsis/septic shock
    • Laminitis as a common sequel to enterocolitis

     

    • Foals are commonly more seriously affected when compared to older horses, with profound systemic illness including:
    • Hemorrhagic diarrhoea
    • Pneumonia
    • Meningitis
    • Physitis
    • Septic arthritis

    Transmission

    • Fecal-oral spread
    • Ingestion of contaminated material (pasture, roughage, feed or water)
    • Fomites are a significant means of indirect transmission of infection
    • Intermittent shedding by subclinically infected horses
    • Aerosol transmission has been suspected in other species; evidence of this route in horses is lacking

    Prevention

    Measures Biosecurity Guidelines

    • Quarantine horses that develop diarrhoea and/or fever. If a separate stall or paddock is not available, establish barrier precautions at their current location
    • Isolate horses following significant colic episodes, impactions (notably small colon), or colic surgery to reduce environmental contamination and potential exposure of other horses should Salmonella subsequently be recovered on fecal culture
    • Prevent horses that have come in contact with known infected or clinical cases from mixing with the general population
    • Contaminated stall and equipment should have all organic material removed. Dispose of organic matter in a manner which prevents contamination of the facility (do not spread on pastures). Disinfection can be performed after all organic matter has been removed and the surfaces cleaned. Pressure washers or hoses should not be used as they can aerosolise Salmonella, potentially contaminating other parts of the facility or infecting a susceptible horse or human
    • No commercially available validated vaccine is currently marketed. For animals with positive cultures while clinically ill:
    • Before removing restrictions, following resolution of clinical signs, conduct a series of fecal cultures (see Diagnostic Sampling, Testing and Handling) to determine if all negative
    • Where culture is not performed, isolation up to 30 days may be required to minimize risk of exposure of other horses from convalescent shedding of previously infected horses following the cessation of clinical signs (fever, diarrhoea). • Isolate horse for 30 days from resident horses
    • Obtain 5 consecutive negative fecal cultures prior to releasing horse into the general population
    • Prior to entry into the general population the horse should be housed in an environment that can be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected
    • If the horse is turned out in a paddock, manure should be promptly removed and appropriately disposed of in a manner that avoids potential contamination of other areas of the facility. Caretakers should wear personal protective equipment. After the horse is released, the paddock should be harrowed to encourage drying and kept unused for 30 days