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Rhinopneumonitis, ELISA

Rhinopneumonitis, ELISA

Vendor
Equigerminal
Regular price
€40.00
Sale price
€40.00
Unit price
per 

Pathogen test 
  • This ELISA test detects antibodies to Equine Herpesvirus Type 1 (EHV-1) and to Equine Hespesvirus type 4 (EHV-4), the 2 agents responsible for Rhinopneumonitis.

  • ELISA test with ab tritation.

Sample

  • 5 mL - blood - serum tube

Turnaround time

  • 2 to 5 working days

 

What is Rhinopneumonitis?

  • Equine Rhinopneumonitis (ER) is a collective term for any one of several highly contagious, clinical disease entities of equids that may occur as a result of infection by either of two closely related herpesviruses, equid herpesvirus-1 and -4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4).
  • Infection by either EHV-1 or EHV-4 is characterised by a primary respiratory tract disease of varying severity that is related to the age and immunological status of the infected animal. Infections by EHV-1 in particular are capable of progression beyond the respiratory mucosa to cause the more serious disease manifestations of abortion, perinatal foal death, or neurological dysfunction.

Clinical signs

  • The incubation period (period of time from exposure to development of first clinical signs) ranges from 2 to 10 days.
  • Respiratory signs for EHV-1 and EHV-4 include high temperature that lasts for 1-7 days, coughing, depression, inappetence (going off feed), and nasal discharge.
  • Abortion usually occurs between months 7 and 11 of gestation, about 2-12 weeks after infection.
  • There is no evidence that the mare’s reproductive tract is damaged, and it does not affect her ability to conceive in later pregnancies.
  • Signs of neurologic disease for EHV-1 and EHV-4 include mild incoordination, hindlimb paralysis, recumbency (lying down and being unable to get up), loss of bladder and tail function, and loss of sensation to the skin around the tail and hindlimb areas.

Transmission

  • Transmission occurs when infected and uninfected horses come in either direct (nose to nose contact) or indirect (through buckets, clothing, blankets that are contaminated) contact with nasal discharges of infected horses.
  • The virus can travel via aerosol (in the air) for short distances.
  • The virus may also be transmitted by contact with aborted foetuses, placental fluids, or placentas from infected horses.
  • Also, following infection, horses may become latent carriers of EHV; virus may be reactivated after stress or high doses of corticosteroids.
  • Upon detection of clinical signs suggestive of EHV, the veterinarian may choose to take a nasopharyngeal (nose and throat) swab of the horse, blood sample, or tissue from the aborted foetus for detection of virus in the tissues.  Paired blood samples for detection of antibody trites (levels) may also be taken.
  • Treatment involves supportive care and treatment of the symptoms.  Non-steroidal anti-inflamatory drugs are commonly used to reduce fever, pain and inflammation.
  • In uncomplicated cases, complete recovery will occur in a few weeks.
  • Horses with neurological disease have variable recovery rates depending on severity of the clinical signs.  The prognosis is poor if the horse is recumbent (unable to stand) for an extended period of time.
  • The horse should be rested until fully recovered and gradually returned to work.

Prevention

  • Transmission occurs when infected and uninfected horses come in either direct (nose to nose contact) or indirect (through buckets, clothing, blankets that are contaminated) contact with nasal discharges of infected horses.
  • The virus can travel via aerosol (in the air) for short distances.
  • The virus may also be transmitted by contact with aborted foetuses, placental fluids, or placentas from infected horses.
  • Also, following infection, horses may become latent carriers of EHV; virus may be reactivated after stress or high doses of corticosteroids.
  • Upon detection of clinical signs suggestive of EHV, the veterinarian may choose to take a nasopharyngeal (nose and throat) swab of the horse, blood sample, or tissue from the aborted foetus for detection of virus in the tissues.  Paired blood samples for detection of antibody triers (levels) may also be taken.
  • Treatment involves supportive care and treatment of the symptoms.  Non-steroidal anti-inflamatory drugs are commonly used to reduce fever, pain and inflammation.
  • In uncomplicated cases, complete recovery will occur in a few weeks.
  • Horses with neurological disease have variable recovery rates depending on severity of the clinical signs.  The prognosis is poor if the horse is recumbent (unable to stand) for an extended period of time.
  • The horse should be rested until fully recovered and gradually returned to work.